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Christian Communism follows a theological view with the teachings of Jesus Christ, which mainly supports religious communism and other social systems. According to many communistic ideas and evidence from the Bible, many Christians established their own communist societies following the resurrection of Jesus.
Christian Communism follows the koinonia concept, which directly translates to a typical or shared life, with voluntary sharing of goods and services. The non-Abrahamic predecessors, or the Church Fathers, earlier maintained the human society, preaching Christianity to follow social order in the community. The early Acts of Apostles were also considered to establish the early form of communism, later supported by late historians.
In the 16th century, due to the influence of writers like Thomas More, society started basing their property ownership in Utopia, which was mainly administered by applying reason.
The basis of Christian Communism was on the biblical tests in the 2nd and 4th Acts, marking the beginning of the first communist society. The understanding was based on Luke 12:33, where Jesus demanded all his disciples to sell their possessions and alms to the poor, ultimately helping them in their livelihood to lead a better life.
However, Christian communism does not merely depend on the principles put forth by the early Apostles. Many early Christians also claim that most Christian communities are deeply rooted in the anti-capitalist ideas in their faith. Although the concept of modern capitalism was not introduced during those times, the Christian faith was solely against the love of money and greed and also pointed to helping the poor and needy.
Communism and Marxism
Many ideologies of Christian communism do not entirely agree with various aspects of Marxism, like dealing with the social and the communist society and its doctrines. However, many Christian communities share some political goals and characteristics of Marxism. For instance, replacing the ideas of capitalism with socialism is one of the main points that the later communists also followed in society.
Many young Christians like Louis Althusser and Denys Turner were some of the Christian philosophers. They merged the coherence of Marxism and Christianity and encouraged people to adopt Marxism in their belief system.
The Marxist community also aims at unifying all groups of people together, preaching that humankind is one and there is only one God who does not discriminate against people based on various factors. This concept directly relates to the Christian Universalists.
Biblical theology mainly focuses on the teaching in the Bible, written by individual authors. These teachings are published in scriptures as a part of the historical developments. Since scholars worldwide have used these theologies differently, they have been challenging to define in brief terms. This article has jotted down the ten things every Christian needs to understand about Biblical theology.
It is different from social and systematic theologies.
Biblical theology does not fall into the faithful practices of the teachings in the Bible. Although the primary aim of the theory is to impart the truths of the Bible to the people, the disciple is slightly different from other theological methods that people follow. For instance, the goal of systematic theology is to study the teaching of the Bible, God, and Salvation. Still, when we speak of historical theology, we aim to understand how Christians perceived the Bible in previous centuries. Hence, the teachings and the approach of biblical theology differ from the others.
It emphasizes God’s progressive revelation.
Instead of blindly preaching about everything the Bible says about a particular topic or concept, Biblical theology talks about tracing the revelation of God and how He plans to save the world.
It traces Bible’s storyline.
Biblical theology talks about tracing the origin and birth of the scripture. Most of the people who follow the Bible believe God who created entire universe and others as well. For example, Genesis 3 points forward to the coming of the Savior. In the New Testament, it is written that he is coming again to create a brand new world. According to biblical theology, we can trace this path, which can be summed up in five words – creation, fall, redemption, and new creation.
It uses the categories of scriptures.
Instead of using modern thoughts and philosophies, it focuses on the categories and ideologies that the book writers already used. Since each writer had their theological inputs and emphasis, it focused on delivering the same to people who follow the biblical theologies. This means it also provides us with a method to study each author of the scriptures.
It values the unity of the Bible.
Biblical theology is the best way to understand the author’s ideologies of each scripture, which also throws insights into the unity of the Christian community amidst all the authors of the other authors of different centuries. When read as separate parts, Bible can be a little confusing. But with the help of authors that write on the biblical theologies, it can help people unite and understand the scripture better.
It teaches us to read Bible with Christ in mind.
According to Biblical theology, since the scripture talks about one God, we must put Christ in the center of all our prayers. One of the primary goals of the Bible is to impart knowledge and read them with Jesus being the center of the book.
Who is a Bishop?
In Christianity, A Bishop is an ordained minister responsible for overseeing a diocese, which is an area including several congregations. In Christianity, especially among Roman Catholics, and Orthodox, Bishops are considered the successors of the Apostles of Jesus Christ. A Bishop is responsible for holding the sacrament of holy order and teaching the authentic doctrine to the people in his jurisdiction. Popes, Cardinals, and Archbishops are of different degrees or levels of Bishops. Bishops have the responsibility to overlook that the rules and regulations of the Christian diocese are carried out. Bishops are also responsible for arranging clergy appointments and providing religious teachings to individual churches. These teachings help in setting the direction of the church according to changing times and re-establishing its purpose through missionaries across the world.
Selecting qualified Bishops is not an easy job. The diocese has a list of suitable and qualified priests to be appointed as bishops. This list is renewed every three years based on the activities and reputation of the priests. When an Archbishop is selected, the list is composed of currently serving bishops. Usually, congregation members discuss the list of candidates and choose one with the help of votes. Nominations of certain individuals are expected, but they are rarely considered for the position. Suitable candidates must have strong faith and good moral standing and should be at least 35 years old. The respective conference determines the minimum number of votes required to select Bishops. However, it is recommended that a candidate should win at least 60% of the votes to be qualified. After the voting, the currently serving Pope might decide to accept the candidate or enquire further about another candidate. The elected Bishops serve for four years before a new election. However, it is common that elected Bishops may serve a jurisdiction for as long as ten years.
Bishops are responsible for maintaining the spiritual well-being of the church members under their jurisdiction. He is also responsible for providing religious members counseling and advice during tough times. Bishops must ensure regular ward meetings are conducted. They are also responsible for interviewing and selecting appropriate members for sending them for missionary duties. One might think that Bishops only carry out spiritual teachings for their church members. However, this is not true. Bishops have a temporal responsibility towards the members of the particular jurisdiction they serve. He has to administer welfare programs and fast offerings in the area. They are responsible for accurately documenting and administering these offerings. Bishops are also responsible for maintaining and overseeing the Church business and the buildings that come under the diocese. These buildings include schools, hospitals, and other services. Bishops are responsible for conducting and overseeing tithing and use the contributions to support missionary activities and charity organizations.
The need for gender equality has forced women worldwide to fight for their rights in all aspects. For instance, in China, many women of the Muslim Uighur community are detained in the so-called “re-educated” camps and are forced sterilization. In Egypt, the school of marriage and divorce restrictions is not limited just to lower-class women but extended to all women of society. Numerous studies reveal that women are generally viewed as inferior to men, and the abolishment of the same is protested worldwide.
Although the urgent need for gender equality has provoked many sections of society to fight for their right, it has remained an untouched subject in many other sectors, where women are still mistreated and abstained from basic leisures of life.
Conservative activism of women
The First activist moment for gender equality and women’s rights began in the 1970s when women were at the forefront of every protest. These moments were essential to mark and embrace ‘family values, which included topics like feminism, same-sex marriage, abortions, etc.
Among many famous faces of protests were Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell, who were the face of political Christianity in 1979. In the 1970s, women like Phyllis Schlafly were also prominent in fighting for the Equal Rights Amendment on all levels. Pop singer Anita Bryant was also a part of many such movements, including discrimination against gay residents.
The debate on abortion
Abortion was not only a social issue but was also against religion since time immemorial. However, this was a core women’s issue for activists on the right wing. While some women protested for the right to abortion and said it was a fundamental right of a woman, others protested against forceful abortion.
The convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women was a treaty formed in 1979 to remove all sorts of discrimination against women and demanded the state take responsibility for women’s protection. By the end of 2015, 189 states had signed the treaty, which implied the willingness of these states to take necessary steps to eradicate gender inequality and other forms of discrimination against women. In addition to these, the treaty will also ensure the following:
- Women’s equal rights to economic resources
- Access to the right ownership of lands and properties
- Right to the equal inheritance of properties in accordance with legislation.
Along with CEDAW, many studies have been performed to study and fight for building and sustaining the religious rights of women across the entire world. However, it is found that society drastically influences the perception of women and women women’s rights. Therefore, religion and culture (social) can be considered two equal sides of the same coin. Thanks to religious leaders, who are generally supportive of all women’s rights and abolish the patriarchal, cultural society.
The Bishops, priests, and deacons are part of the Catholic Church’s hierarchy. Hierarchy strictly stands for “ordering”; in this sense, it means holy ordering of the Catholic Church. In layman’s terms
- Bishops are the chiefs of authority
- Priests and deacons serve as their assistance, right-hand men, co-workers, or helpers
As of reports, on December 31, 2020, the Catholic Church comprised 2,903 jurisdictions, each overseen by a bishop and consisting of a minimum of one priest and deacons. All of these cultural and religious authorities are responsible for performing the following:
- Preaching and teaching the holy bible
- Witnessing marriages
- Conducting funerals; etc
A group of bishops is generally called a ‘College of Bishops’, and they’re the Apostles’ successors. They possess the authority due to their fullness of the diaconate and priesthood.
The primary role of a Bishop in a catholic church is to provide pastoral governance. The bishops who perform this duty diligently are called diocesan ordinaries. Due to their power in the catholic churches, people of the Eastern Catholic churches also respect them. Other bishops, like the auxiliary bishops and coadjutor bishops, carry out a broader service to the church.
All the bishops of a region or a province generally form a conference called an episcopal conference, which is mainly meant to discuss affairs and current events periodically. If at least two-thirds of the members agree to the decisions of the Holy See, then a particular decision is finalized. Even after retirement, the bishop remains in his position since the effect of Holy Orders is permanent. Bishops are also responsible for caring for and concerning the churches’ missions and their union of authority with the Pope, who is considered the head of a college of Bishops. The Pope is also considered the successor of St.Peter.
Priests are like co-workers in a church who are united with the bishops and depend on them to exercise certain pastoral functions and duties. They are also termed as ‘Bishops’ prudent co-workers.‘ The bishop and the priests form a pastoral community for a dedicated parish. Each priest is appointed specific responsibilities by the bishop, which include:
- administration of church events
- Following the Holy Orders
- Anointing of the sick
- Holy Communion
Deacon is translated from the Greek word, which means ‘servant.’ The deacon has a different attachment to the bishop regarding tasks and services offered. The deacon is generally expected to serve the episcopacy and the presbyterate by ordination.
They also receive the Sacrament of all Holy Orders from the bishop through the ministry of service. Some of the responsibilities of the Deacons in the church include:
- Proclaiming the Gospel
- Preaching the sermon
- Helping the bishop and the priest in Eucharist
- Helping with performing marriage ceremonies
- Presiding at the funeral
Theresa May will be known in history as a Prime Minister who continually promised voters conservative policies, but implemented the exact opposite. She promised to take the United Kingdom out of the European Union, the Single Market, and the Customs Union, but has done a volte-face, and is now trying to shackle the country into a backstop that will leave us permanently tied to all three.
In another U-turn which is just as damaging to the country, she has decided to sign the UK to the United Nations Global Compact on Migration. Most people have never heard of this, but it is important as representatives of the 192 members of the United Nations are going on a jolly to Marrakesh on the 10th and 11th of December to sign it. Perhaps coincidentally, this coincides with Theresa May’s attempt to put a permanent end to the UK’s sovereignty in the House of Commons.
This is typical of her modus operandi. She has hailed her terrible Withdrawal Agreement as delivering an end to the free movement of people from the EU but has agreed to sign the UK into the Global Migration Compact which regularises mass migration from the whole world. The mainstream media has hardly mentioned the coming Global Migration Compact, so unless you are watching carefully you will miss her brazen duplicity.
The Compact is being hailed as the first-ever agreement to cover all aspects of international migration and is being propagandized by videos of smiley, happy, hyper-diverse communities so beloved by liberal globalists, but as usual, the devil is in the detail.
Christmas decorations are going up in the office. The staff party is on everyone’s calendar, in anticipation of revelry and revelations. It offers an evening to let your hair down and end the year on a high.
But with myriad cultural sensitivities and MeToo hysteria, has the Christmas party become a minefield of perceived offence or harassment, and potential disciplinary action?
Cultural diversity is regarded as a plus in the workplace, but a natural tendency for people to work together harmoniously has been stifled by institutional policy and ‘values.’
My friend Sheila (not her real name) began working for a government agency ten years ago, in a featureless block in a humdrum overgrown market town in the East Midlands. For family reasons she upped sticks, having secured a transfer to the agency’s offices on the outskirts of London.
‘The world has never been a level playing field,’ quips economic historian David S Landes. ‘Heck, don’t we know that?’ chorus the Left. ‘That is why we are the demolition men and women of this world. Armed with dynamite, wrecking balls, bulldozers and earthmovers, our vision is to pulverise the evil of inequality and create a new world of homogeneous egalitarianism.’
The messianic illusion of progressivism is the counterfeit of Isaiah’s poetic vision in the opening aria of Handel’s Messiah: ‘Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill made low, the crooked straight and the rough places plain.’
The fantasy of human beings creating a world order where outcomes would be equal led to the most colossal catastrophes of the 20th century. Nazism sought equality by ridding the world of its ‘inferior’ races, while Communism attempted to impose equality by ridding the world of ‘exploiters’ responsible for the poverty of the exploited, writes Thomas Sowell in a shattering critique of this virus of wishful thinking in his new book Discrimination and Disparities.
Sowell is one of America’s greatest economists. He is the author of more than forty books. Sowell does not wear his scholarship on his sleeve. He writes on economics in a manner that is not only accessible, but also relevant and even riveting. Most importantly, he tenaciously rejects ideological sloganeering and, using empirical testing to the point of obsession, points out that ‘the Emperor has no clothes’.
A good example of an exercise in hypothesis testing is Marx’s Capital, he notes in Discrimination and Disparities. ‘“Exploitation” was at no point in its 2,500 pages treated as a testable hypothesis, but was instead the foundation assumption on which an elaborate intellectual superstructure was built,’ he argues. ‘And that proved to be a foundation of sand.’
Fifty years ago, a quintessentially British comedy was produced in the pleasant fields and orchards near Pinewood Studios. The masses lapped up Carry on Camping, though, like others in the series, it did not receive critical acclamation. I was drawn to watch it again, following the revelation that national treasure Barbara Windsor has dementia. It’s the purest form of the British comedy genre.
The film requires very little plot. Sid James and Bernard Bresslaw play two boyfriends who have seen a promo film for a nudist camp. They hoodwink their girlfriends into going there for the summer holiday. But they end up at the wrong Paradise, just a muddy field with no amenities. This also happens to be the destination for a class of girls at a finishing school, under the watchful glare of their matron (the awesome Hattie Jacques) and headmaster Dr Soaper (the brilliant Kenneth Williams).
Not having watched a Carry On movie for over twenty years, I was struck by how much my impression has changed. As a teenager, when the films were repeated on the BBC, I saw them as embarrassingly silly slapstick. Although risqué when made, the sexual innuendo and toilet humour seemed dated in the taken-for-granted liberty of the 1980s. Today, Carry on Camping seems positively edgy.
The jolly japes of Carry on Camping would be ‘inappropriate’ now – the nudity and very conventional gender relations too distasteful and discriminatory for our supposedly tolerant culture. The sexual promiscuity of schoolgirls in unfeasibly short mini-skirts, and the unashamed leering by older men, would be verboten in the light of the MeToo movement.
The film’s most farcical scene is in the early-morning Physical Training (PT) session, when the girls are urged to put more vigour into their stretches. Busty Babs swings her arms and her bra catapults into Dr Soaper’s face, to his disgust. Male campers feast their eyes. In another scene, Sid James peers through a peephole into the female showers.
Four-year-olds in English schools are to have lessons in “how we touch our own and each other’s bodies” under the new Relationships and Sex Education (RSE) programme which will become compulsory in September 2020.
The “All About Me” sex education curriculum for Reception (age 4-5) instructs teachers to give children “the opportunity to explore a variety of different touch and feel sensations” and allow them “to decide which they like and dislike.”
Children in this age group will also be taught the names of private parts like “penis and anus (bum) for boys” and “vulva, vagina and anus for girls.”
Teachers are to “encourage the class to shout out and name the private body parts using the correct terms.”
Further, “when it comes to naming female genitals we would like to encourage you to use the term vulva, instead of vagina,” the Reception year curriculum states.
“We would like to encourage girls to own their whole sexual anatomy, including their pleasurable parts rather than reducing it to merely their baby making body parts,” explains the teaching material.